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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Ricardo S. RamalhoUniversity of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. Cape Verde is an island country and Sahelian, where the climatic conditions cause a rainfall deficit originating dry periods causing a fragile agricultural development. The rural world is facing various problems such as lack of land for cultivation, lack of water and soil erosion.
The " apanha de areia " sand haversting refers to the extraction of sand and gravel from the sea and rocks. Although it is considered as an environmental crime, the activity is carried for generations and supplies the civil Cape Verde Islands sex chat partners business of the country. This study analyze this activity from the perspective of women from the interior of Santiago, in the locality of Charco, in the municipality of Santa Catarina. The research was carried out based on an ethnography of long duration, with spaced field visits, since January and the monitoring of environmental and gender policies in Cape Verde.
Aswe highlight women's agency in the face of a context of growing social inequalities. Cape Verde is commonly presented in the literature as an island and Sahelian country, in which its climatic conditions cause a rainfall deficit, originating dry periods that persevere and, therefore, impose a fragile agricultural development. The Cape Verde archipelago is located on the West African coast. It is composed of ten islands, nine of which are inhabited, being its population comprised ofwomen andmen, according to the population census.
However, the poverty concept does not only cover income and consumption. As an institutional category that supports public policies, to beyond the deprivation of elementary needs, the notion of poverty became part of the deprivation of freedom to choose, to outline an earlier situation and, consequently, the non-participation in the policy-making processes. It is a multiple deprivation, that is, a deprivation in several domains.
In this case, one can speak of exclusion, even though the two concepts—poverty and social exclusion—present distinct realities that cannot always coexist, although they are often confused and linked to each other. Pedro Demo, talks about two different types of poverty: the socioeconomic and the political. In his perspective, when we think about poverty, the material aspect is the first one that comes to mind; it is a deficiency.
However, the sociologist recognizes a type of poverty associated with the field of power, that is, a dimension of citizenship, participation, and forms of political organization. All of this is achieved when the poor begin to reflect on their condition and look for solutions to break with this influential logic; when they cease to be mere objects and do not see poverty as something innate. In the s, the Cape Verdean governments started to include the poverty dimension in their policies. Inthe National Program to Fight Poverty PNLP was presented as a decentralized and participation tool for the different social actors involved, considering that the fight against poverty also came to be understood as a task for the poor themselves.
Considering that poverty is constituted and distributed in different ways, depending on the islands and municipalities, and being more predominant among the rural population, it is noteworthy that the islands that mostly comprise rural inhabitants are the most affected, being Santiago Island one of them. According to Furtado,p. Thus, the rural world faces several problems related to the lack of land for cultivation, besides other environmental phenomena such as insufficient water for consumption and agricultural use.
Regarding the water consumption in Cape Verde, it is mainly from underground sources.
Its flow type largely regulates the exploitation of surface water that has a torrential origin. Therefore, its quantity is underutilized due to the difficulties of capturing it. The water issue is considered of vital importance to overcome barriers to development. This is the result of the countless efforts to build water infrastructures able to solve the problem of water shortage in Cape Verde, such as the dams.
Ferreira, In these policies, it is assumed a development that bets on a multidimensional character, on an interdisciplinary approach, in which different dimensions of life are articulated, demanding participatory and empowerment methodologies. Poverty tends to be rural, and a higher proportion of women are poor if compared to men. The same is true for female-headed households compared to male ones. In this context, the aim of this study present some reflections from a long-lasting ethnography, which started in Januarybased on the perspective of women from Charco, located in Santa Catarina municipality.
Therefore, we carry out field observations, interviews and informal conversations. All testimonies and narratives collected during fieldwork are using fictitious names to preserve identities Beaud and Weber, ; Fonseca, Santa Catarina is one of its nine municipalities and, in the past, was the most populous one. Today, agriculture and livestock are still vital activities for the region. Sand harvesting is a process that consists of the extraction of sea sand and rocks, such as gravel and crushed stone, for the use in civil construction.
Cape Verde Islands sex chat partners to Moassab and Vieirap. Besides that, it presents climatic extremes that diversify from the sub-humid, semi-arid to the arid, promoting three agroecological zones. The basin areas contiguous to the sea today face problems of marine intrusion. Hence the soil salinization, which, according to Cape Verdean technicians, is the result of the exploitation of aggregates sand harvesting by the local and surrounding populations. In them, a total of 51 households were identified, being 30 of them female-headed families, according to data collected from the Third General Population and Housing Census in Regarding policies, in addition to the above-mentioned program aimed at reducing poverty, Environmental Action Plans PANA were also developed.
Then, inthe aggregate extraction without authorization was criminalized. On the contrary, its effectiveness legitimizes democracy. In a democratic context, decisions must go through the target audience of certain policies or programs and recognizing them as social actors in these environments is the way to guarantee participation in decision-making processes Oliveira, This dynamic viability in a Cape Verdean rural community makes us reflect on the concept of dialogic ethics of Roberto Cardoso Oliveira,considering that, for the author, the issue involves a democratic process, a process that must be guided by symmetry, based on the understanding of those who are touched by a discourse.
Everyone must be part of the same space of participation and intervention. What Mr. This statement allowed us to identify a hierarchy among the residents of these communities. The women who participate in the sand harvesting complain that they are despised, they are insulted of long necks, and are widely criticized. In this case, they insist on showing that, on the one hand, there are women who participate in this process, and for this reason, they show s of a daily struggle; on the other hand, other people show up, women and men, who do nothing and only expect to receive or simply wait for the others to give them something.
In this context, sand harvesting reveals agency and contestation dimensions in relation to the situation of social and economic inequality of women and families in rural areas. A television news broadcast about this awareness-raising action presented the perspective of women who participated in this meeting. Another lady talked about the difficulties of supporting her family—one of her children was disabled, so the extraction was what was left to her. The event took place during the morning and ended in a community lunch and a presentation of batuko 1.
The event started with two technical training courses on environmental protection and risks Cape Verde Islands sex chat partners from extractive practices conducted by the population. Participants were given sheets of paper and pens for taking notes. Speak up, please. Lastly, when asked about possible alternatives to stop the sand harvesting, a lady did not hesitate to criticize palliative measures, referring to income generation programs from animal husbandry.
Next to the entrance door, there is a square space filled with sand. However, the sand that was off the sea edge, which was already extracted, could be used. In this way, we saw some piles close to the residences. House repairs, maybe? Many were under construction. In front of the house, there was a boat built by Mr. Davi, a year-old fisherman that only worked in fishing from time to time. We talked to him over lunch. When we talked to some young women about the pace at which they filled the galuchosname locally used for the vehicles that transport aggregate materials, they said that everything depended.
It would not be possible to know, since it was the sea that mainly dictated the rules. Per day, they could fill one galuchoor even more, if the tide was good.
When the sea was rough, it was too dangerous; they avoided going into the sea and going further to not Cape Verde Islands sex chat partners the risk of getting hurt on the slippery rocks or even suffering other accidents. Therefore, the best time for the sand harvesting was when the tide was going out. Pathway from Ribeira da Barca to the Charco. Source: Images taken by the researchers, February Source: Images taken by the researchers, March Sogni, Beta's father, made a point of explaining to us about the moon's interference in the sea.
They followed each other. When the moon was high above our he, it meant that the tide was dry or low. When the moon was rising or setting, the tide was full or high. He also said that the sea changed every 40 or 45 h. This relationship between the sea and the moon was ificant for the construction of their fishing boats, given that cutting the wood for this purpose was closely related to the tide, i. Therefore, the rhythm of work is intertwined with the rhythms of nature, that is, the sea is an important guide on how the work will be conducted and allows a greater autonomy in its management.
As Beta explains, a young woman who is dedicated to this activity of extracting sand and gravel, these women constitute societies. Her 56 year-old mother and her, along with two other women, are partners; they all live in Ribeira da Barca and go to the Charco to work.
Ane, Beta's sister, exemplified to us that among her sister, their partners, and her there are no conflicts in general, but in other groups there are. Sometimes, a partner may not go to work one day, and the others determine, by mutual agreement, whether she will be paid for that day or not. I know I can get sick and they will work for me, but we will share the money.
For this reason, we observe changes and adjustments in the composition of the teams. These tensions, however, did not arise only between women, but also between them and the vehicle drivers, who usually buy the aggregates. This happens for different reasons: 1 they can take months to pay; 2 they may not pay; and 3 if they have a specific clientele, they are loyal enough to buy sand only from a few teams, making the rest of them unhappy.Cape Verde Islands sex chat partners
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Brazil-Cape Verde Workshop bringing together community communication and education in sexuality